The probability of repeating a grade dropped as age of mother rose, but rose again slightly among children of older mothers. Particular attention is paid to assisting youngsters to attain high school equivalency degrees Dryfoos, October Recently, analyses of these new data sources have become available. In 21 percent the parents suggested the visit. These relationships do not disappear when controls are introduced for race, birth order, income, education, household structure, household size and ecological factors.
However, as the author pointed out, the sizes of the effects are small mother's age at birth explains less than half of one percent of the variance in cognitive variables controlling for other factors.
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Black children of women under 20 scored lower on three components than black children of older mothers—incidental spontaneous exploration, social interaction, and awareness of object constancy. Marecek found that, among whites, mother's age at first birth is unrelated to grade repetition. Dubois County Free Press. Events Guide Television Theater Video: Low birth weight has also been implicated in poor intelligence and achievement test scores in childhood see, for example, Edwards and Grossman, ; Mednick and Baker, These are programs based either in schools or in multi-purpose youth centers.